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As a freelance graphic design pro, you're not just a designer -- you're a business owner. You're in charge of obtaining new work, managing your time, budgeting your money and prioritizing the projects most likely to bring you profits.
One of the important skills a freelance graphic artist can develop is the ability to determine which potential clients can afford your services. Sales professionals call this "qualifying prospects."
Money shouldn't be the first thing you talk about, of course. Just as in a job interview, your focus should first be on the value you can add to the organization with your work. At the same time, you don't want to waste a lot of time selling someone who can't buy.
In your initial conversations, ask good questions to develop a sense of what the client needs. Once you understand the project that's on the table, you can ask about budget and indicate a range into which you think the cost will fall.
Most clients will of course try to get something for less. This is normal human behavior. Respond by offering to do a lesser amount of work for that price.